This analysis attempts at assessing German national security space capabilities against the background of the evolving security environment around Europe. For that purpose, we will first describe the current dynamics of European security from the German point of view. Secondly, we will review the capabilities of the German military space architecture. And finally, we will attempt to provide a strategic assessment of German space capabilities.Read More o M. Czajkowski - Germany in Space – A Strategic Assessment
D. Kozerawski - Challenges for higher military education in Poland educating college graduates. Current status and recommendations for systemic changes
The article presents a general assessment of the current state of the professional military education in Poland (four academies educating candidates for junior officers). In analysis, the following topics were presented among others: the needs of the Polish Armed Forces in terms of securing the stream of officer staff; main goals of education at military academies; the current method of filling positions in the authorities of these academies, competences of the faculty and management staff; inappropriate proportions between the cohorts of civilian students and cadets; problems regarding educational programs, didactic and social infrastructure; cadet’s disciplinary issues. Particularly noteworthy are the recommendations regarding the directions of changes and systemic reforms that should be carried out in the professional military education in Poland, so the latter meet NATO standards and allow for the preparation of candidates for officers at an optimal level.Read More o D. Kozerawski - Challenges for higher military education in Poland educating college graduates. Current status and recommendations for systemic changes
The history of the development of nuclear energy in the Visegrad Group countries (V4) is generally similar, and its origins date back to the Cold War. In all these countries, in the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s, some programmes were implemented, which – with the exception of Poland - led to the construction of nuclear power plants equipped with Soviet technology. Currently, following the war in Ukraine, the V4 countries are struggling with serious threats to energy security, which result not only from interrupted supply chains of Russian raw materials but also from the process of transforming the energy sector. Despite significant differences in the scope of energy policies, a common element can be pointed out – the development of nuclear energy, which is to be the foundation of a safe and stable energy sector for the V4 countries in the coming decades.Read More o W. Hebda - Nuclear energy in the Visegrad Group countries – A convergent vision of development?
The Russian invasion of Ukraine shifted temporarily the geopolitical center of Europe eastward, both in a political and security context. As a result, Central and Eastern European countries, especially those bordering Russia and/or Ukraine, gained a new voice in the debate on the shape of European security. These so-called "frontline states" have long signaled their sense of insecurity and concerns about Russia's aggressive posture, and after the outbreak of the war, they actively engaged in actions aimed at supporting Ukraine and bringing an end to the conflict.Read More o A. Mazurkiewicz - Estonia as a frontline state
The rising number of espionage cases in Poland in recent months has led to a growing chorus of politicians and opinion leaders calling for more severe legal measures. At the same time, the authorities boasted of their successes in dismantling Russian spy network, and the parliament passed a new law that is intended to strengthen the state's resilience against this threat. It is worth taking a closer look at this issue, considering its evolving scale, conditions, and the state of Polish counterintelligence.Read More o A. Nyzio - On spies, espionage and Polish counterintelligence