The nature of the conflict below the threshold of war, which has been present in the art of war For millennia, is currently undergoing an accelerated evolution and acquires a special meaning. The evolution of the contemporary battlefield, changes in operational strategy and, finally, the reform of the armed forces have caused that the conduct of operations below the threshold of war in the region of Central and Eastern Europe becomes an important framework for a reflection on a future and a most probable form of the coming conflict. The analysis of the modus operandi of the actions of the Russian Federation in Ukraine during the operation in Crimea in 2014 and thereafter shows how the ability to operate below the threshold of war can be important on the modern battlefield, so different from the one we used to know.Read More o P. Orłowski - Special Operations Forces in a conflict below the threshold of war
M. Kolaszyński - Committees of inquiry in Germany: Can a parliamentary minority control the activities of the intelligence services?
Recently, a lively debate has been conducted in Poland on the establishment of a commission of inquiry into secret surveillance. In this context, it is useful to refer to the functioning of this type of institution in Germany. This is significant for at least two reasons. First, since 1954, there have been at least 16 committees of inquiry into the activities of the intelligence services in Germany. Second, the opposition has made very frequent use of this instrument in recent years. This relates to the issue of secret surveillance.Read More o M. Kolaszyński - Committees of inquiry in Germany: Can a parliamentary minority control the activities of the intelligence services?
The Arctic region has received a great amount of attention in the past years, especially from world powers such as the United States, Russia and China. The publication of strategic documents which refer to the Arctic increased in frequency over the 2010s. In 2018, following the publication of the first Arctic Strategy, China joined the competition for natural resources and economic influence. A rapprochement between Russia and China can be observed in international relations, with implications for their relations with the United States. With the growing power of the Middle Kingdom, the position of the US as a superpower is in jeopardy.Read More o P. Dańda - The Arctic security dilemma: A new division of power in the region?
The Russian Federation has been increasingly using propaganda as a weapon to pursue its own interests in various countries. Georgia is no exception. While the Kremlin's use of propaganda to pursue foreign policy goals is not a new phenomenon, its quality and scale have increased significantly over the past years. Like the Western countries, which have become increasingly aware of the real propaganda threat, the Georgian government must recognize the growing problem in due time and develop a state policy to combat propaganda.Read More o G. Julukhidze - Russia’s propaganda and disinformation narratives in Georgia
After the collapse of the USSR, Ukraine inherited approximately one-third of the potential of the Soviet space industry, which during the existence of the Soviet Union was essentially related to the military sector. The end of the Cold War confrontation resulted in the cancelling of orders for services and products from space industry offices. After years of stagnation, the failed projects as Sea Launch or Cyclone 4M and the challenges of the crisis in eastern Ukraine, the Ukrainian space industry is back on the right path. The launch of the Sich satellite in January 2022 into orbit, as well as the return to the Cyclone program in cooperation with Canada is a major shift in the dynamics of the ambitious Ukrainian space program.Read More o P. Frankowski - Back to the stars. The Ukrainian space program 2022