D. Kozerawski - Military service in a foreign army or a military organization by a Polish citizen - current legal status and permission rules
The armed conflict in Ukraine, which began with the invasion of the Russian Federation on the 24 February 2022, caused the affluence of foreign volunteers fighting on Ukraine’s side. This group was joined also by Polish citizens. This analysis elaborates on the current state of law and on permission rules concerning the legal military service of a Polish citizen in foreign armed forces or a foreign military organization.Read More o D. Kozerawski - Military service in a foreign army or a military organization by a Polish citizen - current legal status and permission rules
The course of the current war in Ukraine highlights profound changes in space security, which have been undergoing for some time. Improving access to multiple space-derived services due to the spread of related technologies among the increasing number of commercial entities leads to a qualitatively new strategic situation. Military-grade observation and other security-related satellite services are available on the market, so even non-spacefaring nations and non-state actors can wield capabilities that, until recently, were available only to the several most advanced countries. This article offers a preliminary assessment of changes in the space security environment caused by the abovementioned process against the background of the conflict in Ukraine.Read More o M. Czajkowski - Space Security and the War in Ukraine – A Preliminary Assessment
The energy sector of many European countries, including Poland, has been destabilized in recent months. This is a consequence of the Covid-19 pandemic and the ongoing war in Ukraine. In this context, it should be emphasized that for many years, intensive works toward decarbonization have been under way due to the fact that Poland obtains energy mainly from coal-fired power plants. Developing the wind energy industry, which presently meets roughly 9–10% of energy needs, is undoubtedly a huge chance to overhaul the Polish energy sector. Unfortunately, there has been a notable stagnation over the past few years, primarily as a result of legal solutions (the 10H rule). As a result, the development of onshore wind energy has been restrained, which means a slowdown in the energy transformation. In July 2022, the Polish government decided to liberalize the so-called wind farm Act, the main goal of which is to unblock investments in wind farms. In this regard, there are several doubts whether the amendment to the regulations will be an impulse to boost the wind energy sector in Poland.Read More o W. Hebda - An Amendment to the Wind Act – A Restart of Wind Energy in Poland?
The development of supply chains linking the world's major economies has been overshadowed for several decades by growing geopolitical and economic disputes. Competitive prices and speed of delivery from Asian countries caused companies from highly developed Western European countries to shift some production to Asia stretching supply chains; while ensuring a steady supply of needed components. The collapse of the supply chain due to the COVID-19 pandemic and the aftermath of the war in Ukraine showed the weaknesses of such an arrangement. This leads to rescaling existing supply chain models and a change in approach to existing business models.Read More o P. Frankowski - Global supply chains in 2022
Each year the Polish Ministry of Justice and the Public Prosecutor General, as well as telecommunication and software companies, publish information concerning surveillance in Poland in the previous year. It is worth taking a closer look at statistics on obtaining user data, and wiretapping, to evaluate and illustrate forms, scale and trends of surveillance. As always with the clandestine activities carried out by the security apparatus, the information is scarce and often vague, and each incomplete answer is usually followed by a series of further questions and doubts.Read More o A. Nyzio - Surveillance in Poland A.D. 2021