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D. Dziwisz - ACDC and the hacking back: “Stairway to Heaven” or “Highway to Hell”?
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D. Dziwisz - ACDC and the hacking back: “Stairway to Heaven” or “Highway to Hell”?

28.12.2020
For many years active cyber defense measures and hacking back have been debated in the USA. The crux of the discussion is whether cybercrime victims from private sector should, in certain cases, be able to respond to an attack outside their own networks. Until now, such actions have been reserved exclusively for the law enforcement agencies, primarily the FBI. The Active Cyber Defense Certainty Act (ACDC) which is now being introduced in Congress would remove this restriction, allowing private companies to use aggressive cyber defense measures in order to identify attackers or even destroy stolen data.
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A. Nyzio - Surveillance in Poland A.D. 2019
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A. Nyzio - Surveillance in Poland A.D. 2019

31.10.2020
Each year in summer the Polish Ministry of Justice and the Public Prosecutor General, as well as telecommunication and software companies, publish information concerning surveillance in Poland in the previous year. It is worth taking a closer look at statistics on obtaining user data, wiretapping, and correspondence control, to evaluate and illustrate forms, scale and trends of surveillance. As always with the classified activities carried out by the security apparatus, the information is scarce and often vague, and each incomplete answer is usually followed by a series of further questions and doubts.
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M. Kolaszyński - A Super-Ministry? The establishment of the Committee of the Council of Ministers for National Security and Defense Affairs
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M. Kolaszyński - A Super-Ministry? The establishment of the Committee of the Council of Ministers for National Security and Defense Affairs

21.10.2020
A new institution in the Polish national security system established on the 9th of October 2020 has aroused interest mostly due to its chairman Jarosław Kaczyński, the leader of the ruling coalition. However, the legal status of the Committee of the Council of Ministers for National Security and Defense Affairs does not predestine this body to perform a key role in the state’s security governance and defense.
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B. Kosowski - Consequential threats as a cause of delayed and distant crises
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B. Kosowski - Consequential threats as a cause of delayed and distant crises

12.10.2020
The effects of a crisis situation are usually taken into consideration from the perspective of primary threats. In practice, no assessment of losses is done in relation to threats that arise as a result of the so-called domino effect, and take the form of consequential threats. The failure to evaluate the consequences of those threats results from the fact that they emerge as a follow-up to an event caused by the original threat. However, attention should be paid to the fact that consequential threats often result in delayed or distant crisis situations in various areas of the state's performance, and their effects are then considered without linking them to an original event.
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P. Orłowski - COVID-19 and NATO’s Eastern Flank
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P. Orłowski - COVID-19 and NATO’s Eastern Flank

06.05.2020
The importance of the COVID-19 pandemic is not without a significant impact on the capabilities of NATO forces on the Eastern flank of the North Atlantic Alliance. The scale of that phenomenon was noticeable in in regard to the modification of the scenario and orgnisation of the largest exercise in the Alliance planned for 2020, i.e. DEFENDER-Europe 2020. In this commentary the author aims to answer the question, how much the pandemic influenced the implementation of the exercise itself, what impact may it have on the Alliance's real capabilities and what consequences may this situation have for Poland's security.
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