In early January 2022, mass demonstrations triggered by sharp increases in natural gas prices took place in several cities in Kazakhstan. The protests quickly turned into anti-government riots, in which over two hundred people were killed. After turmoil was quelled and the internal situation got under control, the president of Kazakhstan Kassym-Jomart Tokayev announced a plan for political and economic reforms which aimed at a gradual system transformation and elimination of social inequalities. Under the guise of dismantling the oligarchic structure, a struggle for power began between the Tokayev milieu and elites allied with Nursultan Nazarbayev, the first president in the history of the independent Kazakhstan and the state's most powerful political figure thus far.Read More o J. Niemiec - Kazakhstan – Landscape After the Revolution
It is a common opinion that the Russian Federation’s foreign policy has been very successful over the past two decades. As a result, Moscow’s influence has greatly expanded in the neighbourhood and worldwide, and the military might has increased dramatically. However, this commentary argues that the Russian foreign policy under President Vladimir Putin mostly has resulted in failures and not achievements, as it has not contributed positively to the overall development of Russia in the past 20 years. It is most likely that this is also the case with regard to the recent tensions in Europe.Read More o M. Czajkowski - Russia’s Ukraine Gambit – A Recipe for Another Failure
At the end of the 20th century, Stanisław Lem, one of the most prominent futurists and science-fiction writers, wrote: "If hell exists, it must be computerized." Reflection on the past year leads to the conclusion that if this were the case, then the wretches would not be tormented there through the technology. In the Polish cyber-hell 2021, there is a boiler in one room with a decoction made of Michał Dworczyk's e-mails published on Telegram, and in the other one the delinquents are stabbed by Pegasus.Read More o D. Dziwisz - The Polish cyber-hell, or a happy New Year!
For many years cooperation with partners has been one of the key aspects of the functioning of the North Atlantic Alliance. In accordance with the current Strategic Concept of 2010, cooperative security is one of the three pillars of the organisation's functioning, next to collective defence and crisis management. Partnerships are therefore seen as one of the key mechanisms to increase stability and ensure security. This commentary seeks to answer the following questions: How was the partnership policy developed by NATO? What programs are currently available and which countries are involved? Finally, what directions for the development of the partnership policy were set out in the declaration presented after the Brussels summit in June 2021?Read More o A. Mazurkiewicz - NATO partnership policy – the past, the present and the future
The Independent Control Council (Unabhängige Kontrollrat, UKRat) was established on April 22, 2021, with the entry into force of an amendment to the Federal Intelligence Service Act. The legal changes aimed to implement the ruling of the Federal Constitutional Court of May 19, 2020. UKRat will take over the responsibilities for controlling the BND's signals intelligence (SIGINT) on January 1, 2022. Until the end of the current year, this sphere of German intelligence activity still is subject to the verification of the Unabhängige Gremium.Read More o M. Kolaszyński - UKRat – A new institution of independent control over BND in Germany