W. Hebda - North Stream II vs Yamal gas pipeline: What will happen with Russian natural gas for Poland?
In the last months of 2021, it has become obvious that the Nord Stream II gas pipeline (NS II) will be launched. The international dispute over the legitimacy of building two more lines along the bottom of the Baltic Sea is now unfounded. Thus, the distribution of the Russian gas to Germany via a new transmission infrastructure is only a matter of time. When this happens and the four lines of the Nord Stream gas pipeline are fully operational, doubts will arise as to the viability of a future use of the Yamal – Europe gas pipeline. This issue is of great importance for Poland, which thanks to the Yamal – Europe gas pipeline has fulfilled most of its natural gas needs. Undoubtedly, the course of events over the next few months may be of key importance for stability of the gas sector in Poland as well as the overall condition of the Polish energy sector.Read More o W. Hebda - North Stream II vs Yamal gas pipeline: What will happen with Russian natural gas for Poland?
The commentary describes the content of the 3+3 initiative and its positive and negative impacts on the participating states. A Special attention is paid to Georgia - the only pro-Western country in the region which is under huge pressure of the three regional illiberal powers - Russia, Turkey, and Iran.Read More o G. Julukhidze - The 3+3 Format and Georgia: A new order in the South Caucasus?
The tensions at the Polish-Belarusian border caused by the migration crisis provoked by the Alyaksandr Lukashenka regime have highlighted the role that the Frontex agency might play. Voices from Polish opposition groups and some representatives of the European Union, including Ylva Johansson, the commissioner for home affairs, called for Frontex’s involvement in the protection of the Polish border. However, this is not a viable option, due to several reasons which are presented in this commentary.Read More o A. Gruszczak - Frontex and the Polish cause
From the very first appearance, the Pegasus spyware has been identified as a tool aimed at journalists and social activists. Despite the passage of time, Pegasus still found ways to overcome newer technological security measures. However, legal regulations did not keep up with its development, often allowing for its free use by intelligence services and law enforcement agencies.Read More o J. Stelmach - The Pegasus spyware in Poland and worldwide
Each year the Polish Ministry of Justice and the Public Prosecutor General, as well as telecommunication and software companies, publish information concerning surveillance in Poland in the previous year. It is worth taking a closer look at statistics on obtaining user data, wiretapping, and correspondence control, to evaluate and illustrate forms, scale and trends of surveillance. As always with the classified activities carried out by the security apparatus, the information is scarce and often vague, and each incomplete answer is usually followed by a series of further questions and doubts.Read More o A. Nyzio - Surveillance in Poland A.D. 2020