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Commentaries

D. Dziwisz - The Goals of the Russian (Cyber)Gray Zone Activities in Ukraine
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D. Dziwisz - The Goals of the Russian (Cyber)Gray Zone Activities in Ukraine

17.04.2023
International conflicts arise from contradictory interests that accumulate over time, and gray zone activities can be seen as part of a larger conflict cycle that can lead to both escalation and de-escalation. A well-managed conflict in the gray zone should be able to produce strategic outcomes, but in the case of the Russia-Ukraine conflict it has gone way beyond the gray zone. The shift from a gray zone to open conflict in Ukraine offers new perspectives for examining to what extent countries may utilize and compete in the gray zone in the future, and about the levels of the threshold of aggression.
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P. Orłowski - Effectors are effectors... and where is the most important link?
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P. Orłowski - Effectors are effectors... and where is the most important link?

19.03.2023
In the discourse on security in the broadest sense, a trend has become noticeable for some time, which puts modern technological solutions in the central point of consideration of the processes taking place in the security aspect, as if forgetting the role of the human factor. This commentary is an attempt to show that it is the human being, the human factor, which still is, and should be, the key element for considering security in the broadest sense.
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W. Hebda - Broken “Friendship” – Will Russian oil no longer flow to Poland?
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W. Hebda - Broken “Friendship” – Will Russian oil no longer flow to Poland?

12.03.2023
On February 24, 2023, one year has passed since the outbreak of the Russian-Ukrainian conflict. It is worth recalling that in the aftermath of the Russian military aggression against Ukraine, the EU member states set themselves the aim to reduce or completely eliminate the import of energy resources from Russia. These actions are aimed at weakening Putin's war machine, as the financial revenues from the sale of hydrocarbons are gigantic. Despite EU sanctions, the Russian authorities have not stopped using their energy resources to achieve political goals, using blackmail.
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A. Kielin - Specialized search and rescue groups of the State Fire Service as an important element of the state security system, in particular as a response to threats posed by construction accidents.
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A. Kielin - Specialized search and rescue groups of the State Fire Service as an important element of the state security system, in particular as a response to threats posed by construction accidents.

06.03.2023
This commentary refers to an event that took place in Katowice on January 27, 2023, in which two people were killed and five injured. It presents the particularity of the specialist groups of the State Fire Service of Poland during this type of actions. It exhibits the role and tasks of these groups in the state security system, as well as their relevance as an important element of international security within the EU safety mechanisms.
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J. Niemiec - The earthquake in Turkey and its potential political consequences
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J. Niemiec - The earthquake in Turkey and its potential political consequences

13.02.2023
On 6 February 2023, a powerful earthquake (7.8 on the Richter scale) took place on the border of Turkey and Syria. It was followed by a wave of over a hundred extremely strong aftershocks. As a result of the disaster, more than 20,000 people died and almost 100,000 were injured in both countries (as of 10 February 2023). In Turkey, negative effects of the earthquake were felt by some 20 million inhabitants, while tens of thousands of buildings were damaged in thirteen provinces located in the southern and eastern regions of the country. Due to its magnitude, scale of damage and number of fatalities, the recent earthquake has been the largest one in Turkey’s history since the 1939 Erzincan earthquake.
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