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Analyses

M. Czajkowski - The Russian Satellite Reconnaissance Capabilities – Political and Strategic Assessment
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M. Czajkowski - The Russian Satellite Reconnaissance Capabilities – Political and Strategic Assessment

18.06.2022
The Russian Federation inherited an outdated space industry base which was also reduced in size after the collapse of the USSR. In the 1990s, the crisis persisted, resulting in a drastic reduction of the capabilities of the Russian space systems. The situation started to improve in the 21st century, but as of 2022 Russian satellite capabilities remain highly limited, specifically in relation to the needs of the nation which considers itself a world-class power. Russia's deficiencies are particularly striking in space surveillance architecture which remains vastly inferior to the main competitors like the United States and China. Moreover, western commercial companies are also way ahead of the Russian military regarding space-borne imaging systems.
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W. Hebda - A Polish ‘’cut-off’’ from Russian energy resources: Is it possible?
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W. Hebda - A Polish ‘’cut-off’’ from Russian energy resources: Is it possible?

25.04.2022
The Russian aggression against Ukraine has stimulated the debate on energy security of European countries. It is no secret that most of them have limited resources of strategic energy resources, such as crude oil, natural gas or coal. For this reason, they are forced to import them from various directions. For several decades, one of the most important has been the eastern direction, and more specifically Russia. This fact is directly related to a serious threat to energy security, especially in Central European countries. Unfortunately, the Polish economy is still largely dependent on hydrocarbons imported from Russia. In this context, there is an ongoing debate over the possibility of a complete "cut-off" from Russian energy resources. Nevertheless, the question arises: Is it possible? If so, when?
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D. Furtak - The no-fly zone: Its concept in regard to the war in Ukraine
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D. Furtak - The no-fly zone: Its concept in regard to the war in Ukraine

08.04.2022
Faced with Russia's aggression, the Ukrainian authorities have appealed to close the skies in order to protect the civilian population. This plea is addressed to Western partners, in particular NATO member states which apparently possess resources and experience enabling the introduction of the so-called no-fly zone over the Ukrainian territory. So far, the leaders of the largest NATO countries and the Secretary-General of that organization, Jens Stoltenberg, have refused to participate in this type of aerial operation. However, regardless of the further course of events in Ukraine, it is worth clarifying the concept and understaning what importance the establishment of a no-fly zone may have in an international conflict. This analysis discusses the issue in question against the background of similar concepts in the field of airspace management in peacetime conditions and the experience gained so far in establishing no-fly zones. This allows to outline the main differences and challenges that arise in the public debate concerning this concept.
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A. Mazurkiewicz - Military identity: The Italian Alpini as peacekeepers
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A. Mazurkiewicz - Military identity: The Italian Alpini as peacekeepers

01.04.2022
This Analysis is the third part of a mini-series devoted to military identity. It focuses on the conceptualisation of a “peacekeeper”. The main context which shapes this type of military identity are widely understood peace-support operations. Typically, in this type of involvement, the armed forces perform non-kinetic tasks or even policing, including, among others, patrolling, monitoring ceasefires, supporting humanitarian activities and the reconstruction of a country, as well as disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration of ex-combatants. The "peacekeeper" identity, formed under such conditions, is therefore based on such norms and values as respect for human life and dignity, respect for human rights, understanding of cultural diversity, and a certain degree of restraint, especially with regard to the use of force.
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A. Nyzio - Does Poland actually need the sixth intelligence service? On the proposal of the establishment of a Cybersecurity Agency
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A. Nyzio - Does Poland actually need the sixth intelligence service? On the proposal of the establishment of a Cybersecurity Agency

18.03.2022
Two recent high-profile scandals have led to an increased interest in Polish cybersecurity. Additionally, it resulted in changes to the law that were swiftly pushed through by the government. At the same time, the opposition has submitted an alternative proposal. The Left aims to create a new intelligence service, the Cybersecurity Agency. It would replace the Internal Security Agency in some areas and the government plenipotentiary for cybersecurity in some others. However, the agency's systemic position, its tasks, competences, and structure have been described and justified in a residual or downright flawed manner. It is hard not to share some of the authors' diagnoses, but then again it is equally difficult to concur that the implementation of the draft would contribute to the strengthening of the cybersecurity system.
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