This text is a part of a mini-series of KBN Analyses devoted to the concept of military identity. This time we will return to the already discussed traditional conceptualisation of the "warrior" identity, which such norms, attitudes, and values as courage and bravery, camaraderie and endurance, as well as discipline and obedience. One of the units that fit into many elements of this identity is the Polish Branch of Special Operations GROM, established in 1990. Although it might seem that the GROM Unit fully corresponds to all the traditional elements associated with the identity of a "warrior", there are also some differences. In the last part of the analysis, we will also compare GROM with one of the previously discussed groups - Australian "diggers".Read More o A. Mazurkiewicz - Military identity: warriors from GROM
J. Grabowska - The environment as one of the factors shaping organizational culture of the Polish special services
In Poland, sociological, anthropological and psychological perspectives in intelligence studies still have received little attention. Wrocław IPN's publication on the security apparatus of the communist Poland from the perspective of anthropology of organization and anthropology of power has opened a new chapter in the research under discussion.Read More o J. Grabowska - The environment as one of the factors shaping organizational culture of the Polish special services
M. Czajkowski - The Russian Satellite Reconnaissance Capabilities – Political and Strategic Assessment
The Russian Federation inherited an outdated space industry base which was also reduced in size after the collapse of the USSR. In the 1990s, the crisis persisted, resulting in a drastic reduction of the capabilities of the Russian space systems. The situation started to improve in the 21st century, but as of 2022 Russian satellite capabilities remain highly limited, specifically in relation to the needs of the nation which considers itself a world-class power. Russia's deficiencies are particularly striking in space surveillance architecture which remains vastly inferior to the main competitors like the United States and China. Moreover, western commercial companies are also way ahead of the Russian military regarding space-borne imaging systems.Read More o M. Czajkowski - The Russian Satellite Reconnaissance Capabilities – Political and Strategic Assessment
The Russian aggression against Ukraine has stimulated the debate on energy security of European countries. It is no secret that most of them have limited resources of strategic energy resources, such as crude oil, natural gas or coal. For this reason, they are forced to import them from various directions. For several decades, one of the most important has been the eastern direction, and more specifically Russia. This fact is directly related to a serious threat to energy security, especially in Central European countries. Unfortunately, the Polish economy is still largely dependent on hydrocarbons imported from Russia. In this context, there is an ongoing debate over the possibility of a complete "cut-off" from Russian energy resources. Nevertheless, the question arises: Is it possible? If so, when?Read More o W. Hebda - A Polish ‘’cut-off’’ from Russian energy resources: Is it possible?
Faced with Russia's aggression, the Ukrainian authorities have appealed to close the skies in order to protect the civilian population. This plea is addressed to Western partners, in particular NATO member states which apparently possess resources and experience enabling the introduction of the so-called no-fly zone over the Ukrainian territory. So far, the leaders of the largest NATO countries and the Secretary-General of that organization, Jens Stoltenberg, have refused to participate in this type of aerial operation. However, regardless of the further course of events in Ukraine, it is worth clarifying the concept and understaning what importance the establishment of a no-fly zone may have in an international conflict. This analysis discusses the issue in question against the background of similar concepts in the field of airspace management in peacetime conditions and the experience gained so far in establishing no-fly zones. This allows to outline the main differences and challenges that arise in the public debate concerning this concept.Read More o D. Furtak - The no-fly zone: Its concept in regard to the war in Ukraine