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Commentaries

B. Kosowski - Time as a determinant of an effective action in a crisis situation
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B. Kosowski - Time as a determinant of an effective action in a crisis situation

03.04.2020
In the event of a crisis, the main objective is to minimize and eliminate the threat. This is aimed primarily at reducing human and material losses. There is no doubt that a good organization of undertaken activities is related to the appropriate planning which takes into account the time factor. This includes the taking and implementation of decisions which limit the escalation of threats. Time used to be one of the key factors stimulating effectiveness of the crisis management system. Based on a preliminary assessment of decision-making processes in various countries, the author advances a thesis that in the course of the current spread of the 2019-nCoV coronavirus many conditions referring to the safeguarding and efficient protection of the population were not duly observed in the context of the time factor.
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M. Kolaszyński -  Who rules in the Polish special services?
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M. Kolaszyński - Who rules in the Polish special services?

27.03.2020
Since the beginning of 2020, the heads of three out of five special services have been changed. The new chiefs are: Marek Łapiński (SWW), Krzysztof Wacławek (ABW), and Andrzej Stróżny (the acting head of CBA). The press described most likely reasons for changes in the management of special services and curricula of the new chiefs. Less attention was devoted to their position in the structure of public administration. This commentary focuses on the legal status of heads of special services. This issue is crucial for explaining the rationale behind the nominations for these positions.
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M. Czajkowski - The Syrian-Turkish Conflict and its Implications for Russia – A Follow-Up
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M. Czajkowski - The Syrian-Turkish Conflict and its Implications for Russia – A Follow-Up

23.03.2020
At the beginning of February 2020, the Turkish Armed Forces were deployed in the Syrian Idlib province to stop the advancing Syrian Arab Army from conquering the last significant rebel-held enclave in Syria. In this piece we review our predictions regarding this situation which we have published on February 15th, 2020.
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D. Dziwisz - The new strategy of U.S. activities in cyberspace – potential consequences of the „defend forward”
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D. Dziwisz - The new strategy of U.S. activities in cyberspace – potential consequences of the „defend forward”

17.03.2020
In an interview with 13ABC television, Donald Trump said that the USA is “better at cyber than anybody else in the world", but until now they were not really using that power. He also announced that if the USA were attacked, the answer would be very painful. This and other similar statements by the American president are in line with the new vision of the United States Cyber Command (USCYBERCOM) of 2018 and the Pentagon’s “strategy of persistent engagement” which is supported by the “defend forward” operational concept.
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A. Tyszkiewicz - France is poised to reinforce its military presence in Sahel
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A. Tyszkiewicz - France is poised to reinforce its military presence in Sahel

12.03.2020
President Macron's decision on the reinforcement of the French military presence in Sahel focused on deploying a unit of 220 soldiers in support of the anti-terrorist, multi-national operation "Barkhane". It replaced the operation "Serval" provoked in 2013 by a series of centrifugal activities by the Tuareg, channeling their efforts to a secession from the Malian state, and Islamic fundamentalist organizations such as Al-Qaeda and the Islamic State. As a leader of the stabilization process in the Sahel and the Lake Chad Region, widely known as Western Africa, France aims reinforcing local efforts taken mainly by the G5 Sahel countries, as well as by the UN and the UE.
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